At one of the Internet of Things conferences I attended last month (and there are many of those these days), I was sitting in on a presentation from one of the leading CPU suppliers for the IoT and M2M markets. The presentation was about the recommended architecture for the future of the IoT and the way the endpoints are going to be connected to the overall system. One of the most surprising comments in the presentation was that 80% of all devices connected to the IoT in the next few years are going to be legacy devices. From trucks to trains to HVAC, and all kinds of other industrial machines that have already been installed in the field. They have been running reliably for a number of years, but still have many years for service in them. All those devices can benefit from connecting to an intelligent backend system. This can increase efficiencies, improve safety, and extend the useful life span of those systems. The financial benefits by themselves should be a big enough reason for the upgrade; adding the safety and efficiency will make it a no-brainer investment.
I realized that I should not have been surprised by this fact, given my own history with embedded and control systems. In fact, none of us should have been surprised by this. IoT is not a new technology; most of the basic technologies have been used successfully in many designs for years. I have worked on the development of a number of connected devices over the last 25 years. From a digital fax using a Z80 processor to a number of industrial control systems using 386/486, devices that included displays, robot control, and communication. And those are not unique examples. A large number of our manufacturing systems, transportation systems, and medical devices are based on designs that are more than a decade old, and in many cases are still in production. And just as an interesting side note, the last time I checked, I found more than half a dozen companies that are still making versions of the 8051 processor, a design that is more than 25 years old at his point (and if you do not know what it is, you should definitely check it out).
All those legacy designs can and should be upgraded to be part of this new revolution. Connecting legacy devices to the IoT ecosystem will expedite the adoption of the concepts of a connected world and will spread its benefits. Connecting a legacy system could require adding a whole new control system that will include a newer MCU/CPU and communication hardware, but in many cases this is not feasible due to the high level of integration and the sensor monitoring that is typical of embedded systems. In those cases, the best solution is to upgrade the legacy system with new software and possibly adding a communication module. A number of companies provide modules that can be connected to legacy designs via serial communication ports (most likely RS232 or I2C) to provide Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, or Internet capability. Adding these modules will enable the connection of that legacy system to the backend server that will support advanced services like remote monitoring, predictive maintenance, and performance analysis.
When upgrading an older design, you should consider the limitation of the device such as small memory, slow CPU clock, and limited capabilities of the original development system at the time the product was designed. To upgrade a system and get a new level of performance out of it, you may need to change some of the basic design architecture. Many legacy system software architectures use serial execution. Changing this to a parallel multitasking architecture can resolve timing problems with the CPU speed limitation. This limitation can be significant, especially when considering the extra tasks required for collecting data and communicating over the Internet with the backend system. Running these activities in parallel with the original tasks of the system can resolve this problem. However, moving to a multitasking architecture in many cases is limited by the available memory in the design. This is where SynthOS can help.
By using SynthOS to create an application specific operation system (ASOS) you will get a very efficient system–one that is optimized for the system-specific needs and with the smallest memory footprint possible. One of the great benefits of SynthOS is the fact that you can start with the existing source code (assuming it is still available). You can take the original code and break it into functional tasks, then define the relations and communication between them using SynthOS primitives. The results will be a highly efficient system that will be able to optimize performance by limiting delay loops, waiting for events and I/O input, and especially waiting on slow communication peripherals and sensors. All of those with a very small penalty in terms of memory overhead. And SynthOS allows you to do all this without requiring any knowledge of RTOS mechanisms like message queues, context blocks, mutexes, or semaphores.
This approach of updating systems that are already used in the field can bring great savings for both service providers and end users. For the service providers, it can bring the system up to the connectivity level that is equivalent to new equipment, and can generate substantial saving in maintenance and service calls. For the user, it will result in reduced downtime and increased efficiency. The key for a successful transition is the low cost and low effort for the upgrade without a significant redesign of the hardware.IoT
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